Psychomotor Learning

The acquisition of ability to perform motor skills

Psychomotor learning is the relationship between cognitive functions and physical movement.

Psychomotor learning is demonstrated by physical skills such as movement, coordination,
manipulation, dexterity, grace, strength, speed; actions which demonstrate the fine motor
skills such as use of precision instruments or tools, or actions which evidence gross motor
skills such as the use of the body in dance, musical or athletic performance.
psychomotor learning is development of organized patterns of muscular activities guided by
signals from the environment.

Its examples include driving a car and eye-hand coordination tasks such as
Throwing a ball
Operating a lathe

It is also called sensorimotor and perceptual-motor skills,

In psychomotor skills, particular attention is given to the learning of coordinated activity
involving the arms, hands, fingers, and feet.

Objective of psychomotor learning
Psychomotor objectives define the physical actions exhibited when performing job tasks and are typically used in on-the-job, laboratory, and simulator training.

Job analysis,
Task analysis, and procedures are sources for determining psychomotor learning objective

There are three stages of psychomotor learning psychomotor learning
The first stage is called the cognitive.
The cognitive is marked by awkward, slow movements, which the learner is consciously trying to control. The person has to think before doing the movement. Performance is generally poor, and the person makes many errors in these slow, choppy, movements. The frustration level is high, but diligent practice allows the person to move onto the next stage of psycho-motor development.

The second stage of psychomotor learning is called the associative stage.
In the associative stage, one spends less time thinking about every detail and beg ins to associate the movement one is learning with another movement already known This is the middle stage of psychomotor learning The movements are not yet a permanent part of the brain. They are not automatic. Movements do not become a permanent part of the brain until they are performed ten thousand times. A person in this stage must think about every movement. However, unlike the cognitive stage, the movements begin to look smoother and the students feel less awkward

The third stage of psychomotor learning  in the autonomous stage.
The autonomous stage is reached when learning is almost complete, although an individual can continue to refine the skill through practice. This stage is called autonomous because the learner no longer needs to depend on the instructor for all feedback about performance. The learner has practiced the movement ten-thousand or nearly ten-thousand times. This is the stage where movements become spontaneous. The learner no longer has to think about the movement. The mind and body become one. This is also a very dangerous stage in athletic training. There is a tendency at times to sleep walk through the movements. By sleepwalk, I mean allow the mind to wander. In spite of the fact the mind and body have become one, a learner must still concentrate on what they are doing. It is not good to think about the previous evening’s date, while practicing!
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