Poverty

INTRODUCTION
Poverty is the lack of basic human needs,such as clean water,nutrition,health care,education,clothing and shelter, because of the inability to afford them.This is also referred to as absolute poverty or destitution.Relative poverty is the condition of having fewer resources or less income than others within a society or country,or compared to worldwide averages.About 1.7 billion people live in absolute poverty, before the industrial revolution,poverty had mostly been the norm.

CAUSES
Scarcity Of Basic Needs:
Before the industrial revolution,poverty had been mostly accepted as inevitable as economies produced little,making wealth scarce.In modern times, food shortages have been reduced dramatically in the developed world,thanks to agricultural technologies such as nitrogen fertilizers,pesticides and new irrigation methods.But rises in the costs of living make poor people less able to afford items.Poor people spend a greater portion of their budgets on food than richer people.As a result poor households,and those near the poverty threshold can be particularly vulnerable to increase in food prices.

The World Bank warned that 100 million people were at risk of sinking deeper into poverty.Health care can be widely unavailable to the poor.The loss of health care workers emigrating from impoverished countries has a damaging effect.

Overpopulation and lack of access to birth control methods drive poverty.The world's population is expected to reach nearly 9 billion in 2040. However, the reverse is also true,that poverty causes overpopulation as it gives women little power to plan childhood,have educational attainment,or a career.

Barriers To Opportunities:
The unwillingness of governments and feudal elites to give full-fledged property rights of land to their tenants is cited as the chief obstacle to development.This lack of economic freedom inhibits entrepreneurship among the poor. Lack of financial services,as a result of restrictive regulations,such as the requirements for banking licences,makes it hard for even smaller microsavings programs to reach the poor.

In India before economic reforms,businesses had to bribe government officials even for routine activities,which was a tax on business in effect.

Opportunities in richer countries drives talent away,leading to brain drains.This is mainly caused by richer countries' restrictions on Freedom of Movement of the poor, uneducated class. Entry visas are granted with much higher probability to the rich and educated of developing countries.

Inadequate nutrition in childhood undermines the ability of individuals to develop their full capabilities.Substance abuse, including for example alcoholism and drug abuse can cosign people to vicious poverty cycles.

War,political instability and crime,including violent gangs and drug cartels,also discourage investment.Cultural factors,such as discrimination of various kinds,can negatively affect productivity such as age discrimination, stereotyping,gender discrimination,racial discrimination and caste discrimination.

EFFECTS OF POVERTY
The effects of poverty may also be causes,thus creating a "poverty cycle" operating across multiple levels,individual,local,national and global.

Health:
Hunger,disease,and less education describe a person in poverty. One third of deaths-some 18million people a year or 50,000 per day-are due to poverty-related causes.Accrding to the World Health Organization,hunger and malnutrition are ths single gravest threats to the world's public health and malnutrition is by far the biggest contributor to child mortality,presesnt in half of all cases.Poverty increases the risk of homelessness.Increased risk of drug abuse may also be associated with poverty.

Education:
Research has found that there is a high risk of educational underachievement for children who are from low-income housing circumstances.Families and society who submit low levels of investment in the education and development of less fortunate children end up with less favourable results for the children who see a life of parental employment reduction and low wages.

Children who live at or below the poverty level will have far less success educationally than children who live above the poverty line.Poor children are much more likely to suffer from hunger,fatigue,irritability,headaches,ear infections,flu and colds.These illnesses could potentially restrict a child or student's focus and concentration.

Housing:
Slum-dwellers,who make up a third of the world's urban population,live in a poverty no better,if not worse,than rural people,who are traditional focus of the poverty in the developing world,according to a report by the United Ntaions.According to a UN report on modern slavery,the most common form of human trafficking is for prostitution,which is largely fueled by poverty.

Drug abuse:
Drug abuse can result in a community shouldering the impact of many nefarious acts such as stealing,killing,theft,sexual assault and prostitution.People who have abused abused drugs and have spent all of their money buying substances-i.e.heroin,alcohol,methamphetamines etc.-become addicts.This induces a downward spiral in the functinality of most addicts,as the drugs and poverty can be cyclical.

POVERTY REDUCTION
Historically,poverty reduction has been largely a result of economic growth.The industrial revolution led to high economic growth and eliminated mass poverty in what is now considered the developed world.

Economic liberalization:
Extending property rights protection to the poor is one of the most important poverty reduction stategies a nation could take.The World Bank concludes increasing land rights is 'the key to reducing poverty' citing that land rights greatly increase poor people's wealth,in some cases doubling it.In China and India, noted reductions in poverty in recent decades have occured mostly as a result of the abondonment of collective farming in China and the cutting of government red tape in India.

Capital,infrastructure and technology:
Investments in human capital,in the form of health,is neede for economic growth.Nation do not necessarily need wealth to gain health.Human capital,in the form of education,is an even more important determinant of economic growth than physical capital. UN economists argue that good infrastructure,such as roads and information networks,helps market reforms to work.With necessary information,remote farmers can produce specific crops to sell to the buyers that brings the best price.Such technology also makes financial services accessible to the poor.

Aid:
Aid in its simplest form is a basic income grant,a form of social security periodically providing citizens with money.Some aid,such as Conditional Cash Transfers,can be rewarded based on desirable actions such as enrolling children in school or receiving vaccinations.Another form of aid is microloans made famous by the Grameen Bank,where small amounts of money are loaned to farmers or villages,mostly women,who can then obtain physical capital to increase their economic rewards.

Aid from non-governmental organizations may be more effective than governmental aid,this may be because it is better at reaching the poor and better controlled at the grassroots level.A major proportion of aid from donor nations is tied,mandating that a receiving nation spend on products and expertise originating only from the donor country.

One of the proposed ways to help poor countries has been debt relief.Many less developed nations have gotten themselves into extensive debt to banks and governments from the rich nations and interest payments on these debts are often more than a country can generate per year in profits from exports.If poor countries do not have to spend so much on debt payments,they can use the money instead for priorities which help reduce poverty such as basic health-care and education.

Empowering women:
Empowering women has helped some countries increase and sustain economic development.When given more rights and opportunities women begin to receive more education,thus increasing the overall human capital of the country,when given more influence women seem to act more responsibly in helping people in the family or village,and when better educated and more in control of their lives,women are more successful in bringing down rapid population growth because they have more say in family planning.

Author Brief Bio-Vanita Gupta is an eminent teacher since last 18 years,teaching science as her main subject and now also running her own coaching institute.
Article 6/86.
Disclaimer
Savio DSilva Websites