Endangered Species

The animal/plant kingdoms are in critical condition. Some conditions on the earth threaten to wipe out many of the world’s best species forever. Scientists estimate that around 137 species become extinct every day. That means about 50 000 species per year!

Each species on our planet plays a role in the healthy functioning of natural ecosystems, on which humans depend.
- William H. Schlesinger.

What is Endangered Species?
Endangered species are animals or plants that are soon to die out. This means that once they become extinct, they will never be seen on Earth again. Many animals and plants become endangered or extinct each year. Recently, however, the rate of them dying out has increased dramatically.

Causes:
Deforestation is the main reason for the endangered species. Man to accommodate the oversized human population is destroying the forests and thus natural habitats are snatched away from these species, leaving them only a small portion of the land, and food also becomes scarce. They have to fight among themselves in order to remain alive. Sometimes animals or plants don't adapt to the limited space and they die.

The other important reason for animals and plants to become endangered are: -
The extensive use of chemicals and pesticides which results in the contamination of water in rivers and ponds.
Hunting and trading are other reasons that threaten the lives of many innocent living creatures on Earth. Illegally People kill animals for their fur, oil, body parts, and many other things in order to earn heavy money.

Pollution is another huge factor causing these animals or plants to become endangered. Animals and plants need a clean habitat to survive. By polluting our environment, we don't only hurt ourselves, but other living creatures around us.

Why Preserve endangered species?
It is very important to preserve these species, for the diversity and survival of the biosphere. It is a great loss to mankind if we do not preserve them, not only because many of these species are beautiful, but because they provide us many valuable services. These organisms clean air, regulate our weather and water conditions.

Extinction of a species would mean the loss of a cure for many diseases. Scientists estimate there are thirty to forty million species on earth, both plants and animals which are responsible for a variety of useful medications. In fact, about forty percent of all prescriptions written today are composed from the natural compounds of different species. These species not only save lives, but they contribute to a prospering pharmaceutical industry.

Precautions/ Solutions to be taken to protect endangered species:
First and foremost thing to be done is stop deforestation and promote afforestation.Trees, plants and animals are all very important; try not to waste natural resources.

Recycle your garbage. By recycling, you're helping to save many trees from being cut down for paper. Avoid any products that have been made from threatened or endangered animals. Buy foods and goods that are made from materials that do not harm endangered animals or their habitat.

There are several organizations such as World Wildlife Organization that are dedicated to the goal of protecting and preserving these species.
We should help the organizations or institutes that create or restore habitat for endangered animals. You can also volunteer to help with projects worldwide designed to reestablish habitat. Join a local, national or global conservation organization. You can also adopt an endangered animal through these organizations and help for its survival.

List of endangered species:
I have listed some of the endangered species and their habitat below.

Animals:
1. Black Rhinoceros – Africa.

2. Snow leopard – Asia.

3. Vaquita – Gulf of California.

4. Tiger – South East Asia.

5. Giant Panda – China.

6. Asian wild dog – Asia.

7. Blue Whale -North-East Pacific, Antarctic, and Indian Oceans.

8. Mountain gorilla – Central Africa.

9. White Rhinoceros – Africa.

10. Mountain Gazelle – Arabian Peninsula.

11. Komodo dragon – Indonesia.

12. Malayan Tapir – South East Asia.

13. Arakan Forest Turtle – Myanmar.

14. Polar bear – Artic circle.

15. Indian Elephant - India and South East Asia.

16. African wild dog – Africa.

17. Bonobo – Africa.

18. Siberian tigers – Siberia.

19. Asian Elephant – Asia.

20. Royal Bengal tiger – India.

21. Sumatran Rhinoceros – Sumatra.

22. Ethiopian Wolf – Ethiopia.

23. African Wild Ass – Africa.

24. Red panda – Himalayan Mountains.

25. Pink river dolphin – Amazon River system.

26. Red Wolf – North America.

27. Amur Leopard – Taiga Mountains, Korea, North Eastern China & Russian Far east.

28. Tasmanian devils – Tasmania.

29. Yangtze River Dolphin – Yangtze river -China.

30. Japanese Dormouse – Japan.

31. Giant armadillo – South America.

32. Riverene Rabbit – Karoo desert in South Africa.

33. Ring tailed lemur – Madagascar.

34. Barb horse – North Africa.

35. Snow Leopard – South & central Asian mountains.

36. Bactrian camel – Deserts of Mongolia & China.

37. Javan Rhinoceros – Java.

38. Cuban Solenodon – Cuba.

39. Sumatran Orangutan – Indonesia.

40. Sumatran Tiger – Indonesia.

41. Brown Spider Monkey - Colombia, Venezuela.


BIRDS:
42. Wroughton's Free tailed Bat – India.

43. Macaws – Mexico, Central America, South America, Caribbean.

44. Kakapo - New Zealand.

45. Golden Bird – Originally from the islands of Jamaica, now restricted to the island of Hispaniola.

46. Cassowary - New Guinea and North Eastern Australia.

47. Takahe - New Zealand

48. Alagoas Curassow – Brazil.

49. Seychelles Magpie Robin – Granitic Seychelles, Indian Ocean.

50. Rufous-headed Hornbill – Tropic & Sub tropics.

51. Puaiohi – North America.

52. Red-headed Vulture. – Asia.

53. Andean Condor – South America.

54. Bald Eagle –North America.

55. Black Winged Stilt –Southern & Southeastern Europe.

56. Black Palm Cockatoo- Northern Queensland & New Guinea.

57. Greater Flamingo - found through out the world.

58. Great Indian Hornbill – India.

59. Helmeted Curassow – Venezuela & North Colombia.

60. Red Crown Crane –Northern China & Russia.

61. Snowy Owl – Greenland, Iceland, Canada & Northern parts of USA.

62. Green Cheeked Parrot – Mexico.

63. California condor - North America.

64. Crested Ibis – South –East Asia.


Plants:
65. Darwinia chapmaniana - Australia.

66. Acalypha wigginsii - Galapagos.

67. Symphyotrichum georgianum - southeastern United States.

68. Orbea paradoxa – South Africa.

69. Calandrinia Galapagosa - Galapagos Islands.

70. Astrophytum asterias - southern Texas.

71. Hibiscus insularis - Phillip Island, Australia.

72. Linum cratericola - Galapagos.

73. Bois Dentelle – Mauritius.

74. Dragon tree – Morocco,Maderia & Cape Verde Islands.

75. African Baobab tree – Africa.

76. Clan William Cedar – West Cape Province of South Africa.
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77. Honduras Rosewood –Belize, Southern Mexico & Guatemala.

78. Monkey puzzle – Europe.

79. African Blackwood – African countries.

80. St. Helena Gumwood – St. Helena Island.

81. Hinton’s oak – Mexico.

82. Loulu – Hawaiian Islands.

83. Alcerce  - Andes mountains of southern Chile and Argentina.

84. Almaciga - Philippines, Sulawesi and Halmahera.

85. Argarwood - Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Iran, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand.

86. Parana pine - Brazil.

87. Pencil cedar – Australia.

88. Ramin – South East Asia.

89. Red sandalwood – India.

90. Madagascar's Rosewood – Madagascar.

91. Spanish cedar – Central America.

92. Teak – Burma.

93. West Indian Satinwood – West Indies.

94. Venus fly trap – North & South Carolina.

95. Titan Arum – Tropical rain forests of Sumatra & Indonesia.

96. Green Pitcher plant – Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina & Tennessee.


Endangered Shark Species:
97. Ganges shark — Ganges river, India (Critically endangered).

98. Borneo shark —Indo-West Pacific oceans.

99. Spear tooth shark — Tropical rivers in northern Australia and New Guinea (critically endangered).

100. Whitefin Tope shark —tropical waters of the Philippines.

101. Smooth back Angel shark — found in the eastern Atlantic between lat 47°N and 28°S.(critically endangered).

102. Pond cherry shark — coastal waters around the Indian subcontinent and S.E Asia. (Critically Endangered).
                             

Fish:
103. Atlantic salmon – North Atlantic Ocean.

104. Chinook salmon – South Eastern Alaska.

105. Coho Salmon - North Pacific (Alaska, Kamchatka, Kuril Islands).

106. Cutthroat Trout - found only in the upper Humboldt River of northern Nevada.

107. Gulf Sturgeon - lives in the Gulf of Mexico and some rivers draining into it.

108. Sockeye Salmon - found in the Northern Pacific Ocean and rivers discharging into it.


Insects:
109. Belkin's Dune Tabanid Fly - only found in the Ballona Creek in California.

110. Corsican Swallowtail - islands of Corsica and Sardinia.

111. False Ringlet Butterfly - found in western France and northern Italy, central Europe.

112. Homerus Swallowtail - found in the island of Jamaica.

113. Luzon Peacock Butterfly- only found in North Luzon of the Philippines.


Amphibians:
114. Cape Platanna - southwestern region of. South Africa.

115. Chinese Giant Salamander – China.

116. Desert Slender Salamander – California.

117. Houston Toad - limited to an extremely small range in southeastern Texas.

118. Japanese Giant Salamander - found on the islands of Kyushu, Honshu and Shikoku in Japan.

119. Mallorcan Midwife Toad - Balearic Island of Majorca in the Mediterranean Sea.

120. Santa Cruz Long-Toed Salamander - isolated ponds in Santa Cruz County and Monterey County, California.

121.Southern Gastric Brooding Frog - found only in southeastern Queensland, Australia.

122. Texas Blind Salamander - only in the Edwards Aquifer underneath and near the City of San Marcos, Texas.

123. Wyoming Toad - wetlands of the Laramie Basin, Wyoming, USA.


Reptiles:
124. Galapagos giant tortoise - Galapagos Islands.

125. Loggerhead Turtle – found all over the world.

126. Green Turtle - Mexican coast.

127. Hawksbill Turtle - tropical coral reefs.

128. Kemp's Ridley Turtle - Gulf of Mexico.

129. Leatherback Turtle - Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans.

130. Olive Ridley Turtle - distributed in the tropical regions of the South Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans.

131.Gharial - India.


Conclusion:
"Every creature is better alive than dead, small or big, pretty or ugly, men, animal or plants. He who understands this will rather preserve its life than destroy it."

Compiled by:Mani
Article 5/80.
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